COVID-19 Outbreak

Dear Friends and Colleagues,

it is more than one month ago when the first case of patient affected by COVID-19 in Italy has been detected. The rapid escalation of the situation not only in Italy and Europe, but worldwide, has an unprecedented effect on all aspects of daily life and is shutting down our life as it was, our habits, and is shaping a ‘world after the COVID-19’ very different from the one we were used to.
Health and healthcare are being impacted in a seismic way. In particular we, as cardiothoracic anaesthesiologists, are in the front line in fighting the virus and forced to think about new ways for our everyday activities, developing new guidelines and best practices.
These are indeed challenging and busy times, we are all working under extremely stressful and dangerous conditions, with decreasing resources – due to decreased number of (sick) staff, and due to limited access to fully equipped ICU beds.
The public health response to COVID-19 continues, and this is thanks to your indefatigable work. Covid and non Covid patients need us to treat their cardiovascular disease, and we are all doing our best to allow all of them to receive the care they need.
As EACTA, we are in the process of creating videos and webinars that could support you in this fight. The first one is already available in open access in the EACTA e-Academy.

My thoughts are with you, the whole Board of Directors is with you.
Stay strong, together we will face it.

Fabio Guarracino
EACTA President

– March 2020


COVID-19 and the Heart:
A literature overview
and local experience

Luisa Baca, Maria Benedetto


Protocolized approach for
resuming elective cardiothoracic
cases during the COVID-19 outbreak

Felipe Unigarro Londoño, Ricard Navarro


May COVID-19
classified as a haemostatic

Maria Benedetto and Vittorio Ferrari


Sedation Strategies And
Neurological Assessment
in COVID-19 ICU Patients

Sara Tomasini


COVID-19 in the Paediatric
Population: Literature Overview
and Clinical Experience

Marta Agulli


Mechanical Ventilation Strategies
and Feasibility of ECMO

Maria Benedetto


Tips and tricks
for safe airway

Mohamed El Tahan

Helpful Resources

WEEKLY UPDATED! – The most recent resources are on top

  1. Tsan SEH, Kamalanathan A, Lee CK, et al. A survey on burnout and depression risk among anaesthetists during COVID‐19: the tip of an iceberg? Anaesthesia. 10 August 2020
  2. Lombardi CM, Carubelli V, Iorio A, et al. Association of Troponin Levels With Mortality in Italian Patients Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019. Results of a Multicenter Study. JAMA Cardiol. August 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3538
  3. Mustafa AK, Alexander PJ, Joshi DJ. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Patients With COVID-19 in Severe Respiratory Failure. JAMA Surgery August 12. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.3950
  4. Puntmann VO, Carerj ML, Wieters I, et al. Outcomes of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients Recently Recovered From Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol.July 27, 2020, doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3557
  5. Gluckman TJ, Wilson MA, MD; Chiu ST, et al. Case Rates, Treatment Approaches, and Outcomes in Acute Myocardial Infarction During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. JAMA Cardiol. August 7, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3629
  6. Shapiro JM. Having Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. August 12, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3247
  7. Di Tano G, Iacovon A, De Maria R. Implications for the Care of Patients With COVID-19 and Inflammatory Myocardial Disease. JAMA Cardiol. August 19, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3389
  8. Inciardi RM, Lupi L, Metra M. Implications for the Care of Patients With COVID-19 and Inflammatory Myocardial Disease—Reply. JAMA Cardiol. August 19, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3392
  9. Usman AA, Han J, Acker A, et al. A Case Series of Devastating Intracranial Hemorrhage During Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for COVID-19. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. August 2020.
  10. Herndon KT, Claussen KS, Braithwaite JJ, et al. A novel clinical consideration to conserve parenteral fentanyl during the COVID-19 pandemic. Anesth Analg. July 30, 2020. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005168
  11. Cardenas-Mancera J, Valencia-Arango L, Segura-Salguero JC, Dıaz-Bohada L. A Portable Negative Airflow Box to Control Exposure for Aerosol-Generating Procedures During Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth.August 12, 2020
  12. Stauffer WM, Alper JD, Walker PF. COVID-19 and Dexamethasone A Potential Strategy to Avoid Steroid-Related Strongyloides Hyperinfection. JAMA July 30, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.13170
  13. McCreary EK, Angus DC. Efficacy of Remdesivir in COVID-19. JAMA August 21, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.16337
  14. Chua KP, Conti RM. Policy Implications of the Orphan Drug Designation for Remdesivir to Treat COVID-19. JAMA Internal Medicine August 17, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2759
  15. van de Veerdonk FL, Kouijzer IJE, de Nooijer AH, et al. Outcomes Associated With Use of a Kinin B2 Receptor Antagonist Among Patients With COVID-19. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(8):e2017708. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17708
  16. Prescott HC, Girard, TD. Recovery From Severe COVID-19. Leveraging the Lessons of Survival From Sepsis. JAMA August 5, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14103
  17. Lee MCC, Thampi S, Chan HP, et al. Psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic amongst anaesthesiologists and nurses. Br J Anaesth. July 22, 2020
  18. Matsuo T, Kobayashi D, Tak Fi, et al. Prevalence of Health CareWorker Burnout During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic in Japan. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(8):e2017271. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17271
  19. Takahiro M, Daiki K, Fumika T, Ayers JW, Leas EC, Johnson DC, et al. Internet Searches for Acute Anxiety During the Early Stages of the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Internal Medicine August 24, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3305
  20. Mello MM,Greene JA, Sharfstein JM. Attacks on Public Health Officials During COVID-19. JAMA August 5, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14423
  21. Jeremias A, Nguyen J, Levine J, et al. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Health CareWorkers in a Tertiary Community Hospital. JAMA Internal Medicine August 11, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4214
  22. Ortoleva J, Dalia AA. Preoperative COVID-19 Testing for Cardiovascular Procedures in Endemic Areas Should be Mandatory. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. August 26, 2020.
  23. Sheetz KH, Massarweh NN. Centralization of High-risk Surgery in the US Feasible Solution or More Trouble Than It Is Worth? JAMA June 29, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2953
  24. Jeffery MM, D’Onofrio G, Paek H, et al. Trends in Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Admissions in Health Care Systems in 5 States in the First Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US. JAMA Intern Med.August 3, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3288
  25. Paltiel AD, Zheng A, Walensky RP, et al. Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Screening Strategies to Permit the Safe Reopening of College Campuses in the United States. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(7):e2016818. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16818 (Reprinted)
  26. Kaufman HW, Chen Z, Niles J, et al. Changes in the Number of US Patients With Newly Identified Cancer Before and During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(8):e2017267. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17267
  27. Cheung EHL, Chan TCW, Wong JWM, Law MS. Sustainable response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the operating theatre: need for more than just personal protective equipment. Br J Anaesth April 11, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2020.04.002
  28. Dugdale CM, Walensky RP. Filtration Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Availability of N95 Face Masks for COVID-19 Prevention. JAMA Internal Medicine August 11, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4218
  29. Sickbert-Bennett EE, Samet JM, Clapp PW. Filtration Efficiency of Hospital Face Mask Alternatives Available for Use During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Intern Med. August 11, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4221
  30. Sevastru S, Curtis S, Kole LE, Nadarajah P. Failure modes and effect analysis to develop transfer protocols in the management of COVID-19 patients. Br J Anaesth. April 27, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2020.04.055
  31. Crabb BT, Lyons A, Bale M, et al. Comparison of International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision Codes with Electronic Medical Records Among Patients With Symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA. August 14, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17703
  32. Lucey CR, Johnston SC. The Transformational Effects of COVID-19 on Medical Education. JAMA August 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14136
  33. Kibbe MR. Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Manuscript Submissions by Women. JAMA Surgery August 4, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.3917
  34. Mishra V, Dexter JP. Comparison of Readability of Official Public Health Information About COVID-19 on Websites of International Agencies and the Governments of 15 Countries. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(8):e2018033. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.18033
  35. Kibbe MR. Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Manuscript Submissions by Women. JAMA Surgery August 4, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.3917
  36. Brubaker L. Women Physicians and the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA July 31, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14797
  37. Wilensky GR. Policy Lessons from Our Covid Experience. N Eng J Med.August 26, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2023204
  38. Adhikari S, Pantaleo NP, Feldman JM, et al. Assessment of Community-Level Disparities in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infections and Deaths in Large US Metropolitan Areas. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(7):e2016938. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16938
  39. Baker MG, Wilson N, Anglemyer A. Successful Elimination of Covid-19 Transmission in New Zealand. N Eng J Med. August 7, 2020, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2025203
  40. Schriger DL. Learning From the Decrease in US Emergency Department Visits in Response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. JAMA Internal Medicine August 3, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3265
  41. Khoury P, Azar E, Hitti E. COVID-19 Response in Lebanon. Current Experience and Challenges in a Low-Resource Setting. JAMA August 11, 2020; 324(4). doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12695
  42. Horn DM, Haas JS. Covid-19 and the Mandate to Redefine Preventive Care. N Eng J Med. August 12, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2018749
  43. Riediker M, Tsai DH. Estimation of Viral Aerosol Emissions From Simulated Individuals With Asymptomatic to Moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(7):e2013807. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.13807
  44. Chen YJ, Qin G, Chen J, et al. Comparison of Face-Touching Behaviors Before and During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(7):e2016924. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16924
  45. Hoehl S, Karaca O, Kohmer N, et al. Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission on an International Flight and Among a Tourist Group. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(8):e2018044. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.18044
  46. Bilinski A, Mostashari F, Salomon JA. Modeling Contact Tracing Strategies for COVID-19 in the Context of Relaxed Physical Distancing Measures. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(8):e2019217. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19217
  47. Chambers C, Krogstad P, Bertrand K. Evaluation for SARS-CoV-2 in Breast Milk From 18 Infected Women. JAMA August 19, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15580
  48. Lee S, Kim T, Lee E, et al. Clinical Course and Molecular Viral Shedding Among Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Community Treatment Center in the Republic of Korea. JAMA Intern Med. August 6, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3862
  49. Moscola J, Sembajwe G, Jarrett M, et al. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Health Care Personnel in the NewYork City Area. JAMA August 6, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14765
  50. Wu F, Liu M, Wang A, et al. Evaluating the Association of Clinical Characteristics With Neutralizing Antibody Levels in Patients Who Have Recovered From Mild COVID-19 in Shanghai, China. JAMA Intern Med.August 18, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4616
  51. Saloner B, Parish K, Ward JA, et al. Persistent Symptoms in Patients After Acute COVID-19. JAMA August 11, 2020; 324(6). doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12603
  52. Gostin LO, Salmon DA. The Dual Epidemics of COVID-19 and Influenza Vaccine Acceptance, Coverage, and Mandates. JAMA July 28, 2020; 324(4). doi:10.1001/jama.2020.10802
  53. Shah A, Marks PW, Hahn SM. Unwavering Regulatory Safeguards for COVID-19 Vaccines. JAMA August 7, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15725
  54. Lee GM, Bell BP, Romero JR. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and Its Role in the Pandemic Vaccine Response. JAMA August 11, 2020; 324(6). doi:10.1001/jama.2020.13167
  55. Xia S, Duan K, Zhang Y, et al. Effect of an Inactivated Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 on Safety and Immunogenicity Outcomes Interim Analysis of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA. August 13, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15543
  56. Mulligan MJ. An Inactivated Virus Candidate Vaccine to Prevent COVID-19. JAMA August 13, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15539
  57. Schachar RA, Schachar IH. A SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine — Preliminary Report. N Eng J Med. August 19, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2026616
  58. Jaklevic MC. Flu Vaccination Urged During COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA August 20, 2020
  59. Grohskopf LA, Liburd LC, Redfield RR. Addressing Influenza Vaccination Disparities During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA August 20, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15845
  60. Slaoui M, Hepburn M. Developing Safe and Effective Covid Vaccines —Operation Warp Speed’s Strategy and Approach. N Eng J Med. August 26, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2027405
  61. Corbett KS, Flynn B, Foulds KE, et al. Evaluation of the mRNA-1273 Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in Nonhuman Primates. N Eng J Med. July 28, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2024671
  62. Faust JS, Lin Z, del Rio C. Comparison of Estimated Excess Deaths in New York City During the COVID-19 and 1918 Influenza Pandemics. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(8):e2017527. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17527
  63. Bukhari Q, Jameel Y, Massaro JM, D’Agostino Sr RB, Sheraz Khan S. Periodic Oscillations in Daily Reported Infections and Deaths for Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(8):e2017521. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17521
  64. Rubin R. What Happens When COVID-19 Collides with Flu Season? JAMA August 20, 2020
  65. Studder DM, Hall MA, Mello MM. Partitioning the Curve — Interstate Travel Restrictions During the Covid-19 Pandemic. N Eng J Med. August 5, 2020, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2024274
  66. Wu Z, Wang Q, Zhao J, et al. Time Course of a Second Outbreak of COVID-19 in Beijing, China, June-July 2020. JAMA August 24, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15894

ESA COVID-19 Resource page

  1. Cook TM. Risk to health from COVID-19 for anaesthetists and intensivists – a narrative review. Anaesthesia July 25, 2020. doi:10.1111/anae.15220
  2. De Filippis EM, Sinnenberg L, Reza N, et al. Trends in US Heart Transplant Waitlist Activity and Volume During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. JAMA Cardiol. July 22, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.2696
  3. Bilaloglu S, Aphinyanaphongs Y, Jones S, et al. Thrombosis in Hospitalized PatientsWith COVID-19 in a NewYork City Health System. JAMA July 20, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.13372
  4. Wessler BS, Kent DM, Konstam MA. Fear of Coronavirus Disease 2019—An Emerging Cardiac Risk. JAMA July 22, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.2890
  5. Cavalcanti AB, Zampieri FG, Rosa RG, et al. Hydroxychloroquine with or without Azithromycin in Mild-to-Moderate Covid-19. N Eng J Med July 23, 2020.  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2019014
  6. Laterre PF, Franois B, Collienne C, et al. Association of Interleukin 7 Immunotherapy with Lymphocyte Counts Among Patients with Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(7):e2016485. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16485
  7. Kamrath I, Mönkemöller K, Biester T, et al. Ketoacidosis in Children and Adolescents with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Germany. JAMA July 20, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.13445
  8. Tromberg BJ, Schwetz TA, P.rez‑Stable EJ, et al. Rapid Scaling Up of Covid-19 Diagnostic Testing in the United States — The NIH RADx Initiative. N Eng J Med July 22, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsr2022263
  9. McCulloch DJ, Kim AE, Wilcox NC, et al. Comparison of Unsupervised Home Self-collected Midnasal Swabs with Clinician-Collected Nasopharyngeal Swabs for Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(7):e2016382. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16382
  10. Havers FP, Reed C, Lim T, et al. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in 10 Sites in the United States, March 23-May 12, 2020. JAMA Intern Med. July 21, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4130
  11. Ibarrondo FJ, Fulcher JA, Goodman‑Meza D, et al. Rapid Decay of Anti–SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Persons with Mild Covid-19. N Eng J Med July 21, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2025179
  12. Brown TS, Walensky RP. Serosurveillance and the COVID-19 Epidemic in the US Undetected, Uncertain, and Out of Control. JAMA July 21, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14017
  13. Wong BJ, Lu AC, Tarlow BD, et al. N95 Respirator Alternatives and Conservation Strategies. Anesth Analg July 16, 2020. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005134
  14. Mahajan V, Ray A, Puri GD. Administering CPR to PPE-Protected Healthcare Worker during COVID-19. Anesth Analg July 17, 2020. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005135
  15. Lu AC, Wong BJ, Sastry SG, et al. Resuscitation on collapsed healthcare worker while taking care of suspected or confirmed COVID patient: Questions and Answers. Anesth Analg July 16, 2020. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005136
  16. van der Made CI, Simons A, Schuurs-Hoeijmakers J, et al. Presence of Genetic Variants Among Young Men with Severe COVID-19. JAMA July 24, 2020. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.13719
  17. Rizzo M, Foresti L, Montano N. Comparison of Reported Deaths From COVID-19 and Increase in Total Mortality in Italy. JAMA Internal Medicine. July 20, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2543
  18. The RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 — Preliminary Report.  N Eng J Med July 17, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2021436
  19. Jackson LA, Anderson EJ, Rouphae NGl, et al. An mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 —Preliminary Report.  N Eng J Med July 14, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2022483
  20. Heaton PM. The Covid-19 Vaccine-Development Multiverse. N Eng J Med July 14, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe2025111
  21. Burel-Vandenbos F, Cardot-Leccia N, Passeron T. Pulmonary Vascular Pathology in Covid-19. N Eng J Med July 17, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2022068
  22. Giannopoulos G, Vrachatis DA, Deftereos SG. Myocardial Injury in COVID-19—Can We Successfully Target Inflammation? JAMA Cardiology July 15, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.2569
  23. Misra A, Elayat A. Novel Closed-Loop Bronchoscopy Barrier Sheath: Valuable Addition for One-Lung Ventilation During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth July 18, 2020. doi:10.1053/j.jvca.2020.06.070
  24. Grasselli G, Greco M, Zanella A, et al. Risk Factors Associated With Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19 in Intensive Care Units in Lombardy, Italy. JAMA Internal Medicine July 15, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3539
  25. Gupta S, Hayek SS, Wang W, et al. Factors Associated With Death in Critically Ill Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in the US. JAMA Intern Med. July 15, 2010. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3596
  26. Suwanwongse, K, Shabarek, N. Pneumomediastinum in Mechanically Ventilated Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth July 18, 2020.
  27. Kapp CM. Zaeh S,  Niedermeyer S, et al. The Use of Analgesia and Sedation in Mechanically Ventilated Patients with COVID-19 ARDS. Anesth Analg July 17, 2020. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005131
  28. Green JS, Dillane D. Pre-loading head supports to avoid anesthesia circuit disconnections during the COVID-19 pandemic. Anesth Analg July 13, 2020. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005128
  29. Bigelow BF, Olive T, Bryan B, et al. Outcomes of Universal COVID-19 Testing Following Detection of Incident Cases in 11 Long-term Care Facilities. JAMA Internal Medicine July 14, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3738
  30. Hade AD. Estimating the risk of an anaesthetist acquiring COVID-19 by anaesthetising an asymptomatic patient. Anesth Intensive Care July 6, 2020. DOI: 10.1177/0310057X20937316
  31. Klompas M, Baker MA, Rhee C. Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Theoretical Considerations and Available Evidence. JAMA July 13, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12458
  32. Harris EJ. Dressing Up. JAMA July 16, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12779
  33. Lane HC, Fauci AS. Research in the Context of a Pandemic. N Eng J Med July 18, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe2024638
  34. Saitz R, Schwitzer G. Communicating Science in the Time of a Pandemic. JAMA July 13, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12535
  35. Wiersinga WJ, Rhodes A, Cheng AC, et al. Pathophysiology, Transmission, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). A Review. JAMA. July 10, 2020 doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.12839
  36. Hu C, Wang G, Zhou D, et al. The Anesthetic Management of the First Lung Transplant for a Patient with COVID-19 Respiratory Failure. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth July 7, 2020.
  37. Sakai W, Tachibana S, Yamakage M, et al. Cross-Holes on a Plastic Bag can Prevent Droplet Spread during Extubation. Anesth Analg July 8, 2020. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005090
  38. Senniappan K, Damodaran S, Kanchi M. Epicardial Echocardiography—A Plausible Alternative Cardiac Imaging Technique in COVID-19 Pandemic. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth July 9, 2020
  39. Seelhammer TG, Rowse P, Yalamuri S. Bivalirudin for Maintenance Anticoagulation During Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for COVID-19. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth July 9, 2020.
  40. Orser BA, Byrick R, Cooper R, et al. Locating and repurposing anesthetic machines as intensive care unit ventilators during the COVID-19 pandemic. Can J Anesth/J Can Anesth (2020) 67:1066–1067.
  41. Jabri A, Kalra A, Kumar A, et al. Incidence of Stress Cardiomyopathy During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(7):e2014780. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.14780
  42. Antuña P, Rivero F, del Val D, et al. Late Coronary Stent Thrombosis in a Patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA July 8, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2020.2459
  43. Gillenwater S, Rahaghi F, Hadeh A. Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19— Preliminary Report. JAMA July 10, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2022236
  44. Ip V,  Ozelsel TJP, Sondekoppam RV, et al. COVID-19 pandemic: the 3R’s (reduce, refine, and replace) of personal protective equipment (PPE) sustainability.  Can J Anesth/J Can Anesth (2020) 67:1070–1071.
  45. Alikhani R, Salimi A, Hormati A, et al. Mental health advice for frontline healthcare providers caring for patients with COVID-19. Can J Anesth/J Can Anesth 2020; 67:1068–1069.
  46. Urdanet F, Stacey M, Sorbello M. The Adverse Impact of COVID-19 on Healthcare Providers: Time to Start Measuring. Anesth Analg July 8, 2020. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005088
  47. Hammoud MM, Standiford T, Carmody JB. Potential Implications of COVID-19 for the 2020-2021Residency Application Cycle. JAMA June 3, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8911
  48. Fleming TR, Labriola D; Wittes J. Conducting Clinical Research During the COVID-19 Pandemic Protecting Scientific Integrity. JAMA2020;324(1):33-34. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.9286
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